REpresentational State Transfer (REST)

Representational state transfer in short it called REST which is actually not a technology.

REST was defined by Roy Fielding in his 2000 PhD dissertation "Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures" at UC Irvine -  wikipedia
REST is an architectural style and not a standared. We use standards to implement it.

It is protocol agnostic and it is based on Richardson’s maturity model  I will try to explain same here in short.

Level 0 (Swamp of POX) :

  • This is about transport systm here it is http protocol used for remote interactions

Level 1 (Resources):

  • Each resource is mapped to a URI.

Level 2 (Verbs):

  • Correct http verb are used. Example: GET, POST, PUT,…
  • Correct http status codes are used. Example: 404, 500…

Level 3 (Hypermedia):

  • The API supports hypermedia as the engine of application state (HATEOAS)


The following are the constrainst for REST

  • Client and server are seperated
  • Statelessness (State is contained within the URI request & self descriptive URI’s)
  • Cacheable (Each response message must explicitly state if it can be cached or not)
  • Layered System (Client cannot tell what layer it connected to)
  • Uniform interface (API and consumers share one single technical interface)

I will share some samples on how REST request and response should be

HTTP Method Request Payload Sample URI Response Payload
 GET  –  api/authors  author[]  / author collection
 GET  –  api/authors/{authorId}  author/single author
 POST (Insert operation)  author/single author  api/authors  author / single author
 PUT (Update operation)  author/single author  api/authors/{authorId}  single author / empty
 PATCH (Partial update)  JSON patch document on author  api/authors/{authorId}  –
 DELETE  –  api/authors/{authorId}  –
 HEAD (To check if resource exist)  –  api/authors


 OPTIONS (describs communication options)  –  api/authors  –

Apart from these Status code play a major role because http status code can tell consumer of API wheather or not the request worked out as expected. Here are some important HTTP status code

Status Code Description
 200  Success/OK
 201  Created
 204  No Comment
 300  Redirection
 400  Bad request
 401  Unauthorised
 403  Forbidden
 404  Not Found
 405  Method not allowed
 406  Not acceptable
 409  Conflict (example resource already exist)
 415  Unsupported media type
 422  Unprocessible entity (Validation mistake)
 500  Internal Server error

This can be categorised like if response code is in 400’s it means isssue is from the consumer side. Also if response code is 500’s it is due to Server

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